These courses will be very useful for those students who will go for job in Conservation and Restoration/ Archaeology/ Geology/ Anthropology by Government/Semi government departments/NGO’s in India or abroad/ Universities etc.
SYLLABUS DETAILS 400 Hrs
Module 1 30 Hr
PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF ARCHAEOLOGY
|The site of the lost city of Dwarka|
i) Definition of Heritage and Archaeology
ii) Difference between Archaeology and History
iii) How Archaeology is more scientific than History
iv) Methods for determination of period of structure and monuments.
v) Maritime archaeology and its importance
vi) Case study of Dwarka
Module 2 30 Hrs
APPLICATION OF SCIENCE IN ARCHAEOLOGY
i) How to make archaeology more scientific.
ii) Interdependence of science and archaeology
iii) Relationship of Archaeology with other sciences like Anthropology, Geology, Architecture, Designing, Physics (for determination of age by the method of Carbon 14 dating), Sociology, History, Psychology and Physiology.
iv) Latest excavations and findings.
v) How history can be supplemented by latest discoveries interdependence of both.
Module 3 35 Hrs
i) Introduction to Prehistory
ii) Prehistoric beginning: Geological, biological and cultural dimensions of humans
iii) Human origin and Geological time scale: Late tertiary (Miocene and Pliocene) and Quaternary Periods, Plio-Pleistocene boundary, Paleomagnetic records, Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. Major environment and climate changes of Pleistocene. Pleistocene and Marine Isotopic Stages (MIS)
iv) Pleistocene Flora and Fauna
v) Main stages of human evolution and important fossil records: Hominin ancestors of the Late Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene, Pre-Australopiths, Australopiths and Homo. Hypotheses on modern human dispersal.
vi) Acheulian and the Flake and Blade based industries of the Stone Age.
vii) Palaeolithic cultural development in the world context.
viii) Prehistoric Art: antiquity, significance, distribution.
ix) Palaeolithic cultural developments in the Indian subcontinent- The Sohan Valley and the Geo-chronology and Stone age cultures of India.
x) Lower Palaeolithic culture.
xi) Middle Palaeolithic culture.
xii) The upper Palaeolithic culture.
xiii) Mesolithic and Neolithic cultures.
Module 4 30 Hrs
i) Towards urbanisation: The Harappan culture, village farming; Pre Harappan; Post urban Harappan; Decline of Harappan.
ii) Other chalcolithic cultures of India. The copper Hoard and Ochre colour Pottery. Chalcolithic remains in Ganga basin. Kayatha culture, Malwa culture of Narmada valley and its geographic distribution. Chalcolithic culture of Deccan region.
iii) Iron age, Antiquity of Iron in India & its early stage. Painted grey ware, Northern black polished ware. The megalithic culture.
Module 5 30 Hrs
i) The beginning of the Early Historic Period and emergence of urban cultures in the Ganga Valley and Peninsular India.
ii) Important sites of Historical Period: Sringaverpura, Ahichhatra, Atiranjikhera, Hastinapur, Khairadih, Chandarketugarh, Nasik, Adam, Satanikota, Nagarjunakonda, Arikamedu, Kodumanal, Pattanam.
Module 6 35 Hrs
ART AND ICONOGRAPHY
i) Art in prehistoric India.
ii) Art in protohistoric India – sculpture in diverse mediums, paintings and other works of art.
iii) Ancient Indian art in diverse mediums (stone, terracotta, stucco, bone, ivory, metals, etc.): Maurya, Sunga, Satavahana, Kushan, Gupta, Vakataka, Pallava, Chalukya, and Rashtrakuta art traditions with special reference to different art centres / schools, e.g. Amaravati, Bharhut, Sanchi, Mathura, Gandhara, Sarnath, Mahabalipuram, Kanchipuram, Badami, Aihole, Ajanta, Ellora and Bhubaneswar.
iv) Early medieval Indian art styles: Pratihara, Chandella , Paramara, Chola, Hoysala, Pala and Kakatiya.
v) Early and medieval mural paintings- technique and styles: with special reference to Ajanta, Bagh, Sittannavasal, Ellora, Thanjavur, etc.
vi) Miniature paintings: Rajasthani Deccani, Mughal and Pahari schools.
vii) Survey of metal images of India with special reference to Pala, Pallava, Chola and Kashmiri styles.
i) Antiquity and concept of Indian Iconography.
ii) Brief introduction to sources, mudras, asanas and ayudhas of deities.
iii) Brahmanical Iconography: Siva, Vishnu, Surya, Brahma, Ganesa, Karttikeya, Devi (Mahishamardini, Saptamatrikas, Parvati, Lakshmi) Navagrahas and Ashta-dikpalas.
iv) Buddhist Iconography: origin of Buddha images, Dhyani Buddha, Bodhisattva (Avalokiteswara, Maitreya, Manjusri), Tara, Maha Mayuri and Prajnaparamita.
v) Jain Iconography: Evolution of Jaina images, Adinatha, Neminatha, Parsvanatha, Mahavira, Bahubali, Yaksha-yakshi with special reference to Chakresvari, Ambika, Padmavati and Sarasvati.
Module 7 35 Hrs
i) Protohistoric architecture with emphasis on Harappan town planning
ii) Development of architecture from early historical times to 12th century A.D. with special reference to stupas, viharas, chaityas and rock-cut caves
iii) Development of temple architecture and its regional variations with special reference to Deogarh, Bhitargaon, Martand, Nalanda, Osian, Khajuraho, Bhubaneswar, Aihole, Kanchipuram, Thanjavur, Halebidu, Diwara, Madurai, Hampi
iv) Indo-Islamic architecture: Delhi Sultanate, Mughal period, provincial styles with special reference to Deccani states and medieval water architecture. Layout of gardens in India through the ages (Dholpur, Humayun’s Tomb, Akbar’s Tomb, Shalimar, Taj Mahal, Nishat)
v) Fort architecture with special reference to Rajgir, Sirkap, Sishupalgarh, Ujjain, Mathura, Pauni, Qila Raipithora, Hampi, Daulatabad, Chittogarh, Jaisalmer.
Module 8 30 Hrs
EPIGRAPHY AND NUMISMATICS
i) Antiquity of writing in old world civilizations (Pictograph, Ideogram, Syllabic and Logo-Syllabic to Alphabet)
ii) Epigraphy as a source of Indian history
iii) Writing material and antiquity of writing in India
iv) Origin and development of Kharoshthi and Brahmi scripts
v) Eras and Dates in Indian inscriptions
vi) Symbols and Signs in Indian inscriptions
vii) Early Indian numerals
viii) Study of seals, sealings and copper plates
ix) Study of some important inscriptions from north and south India
a) Asokan Rock Edict XIII, Pillar Edict II
b) Hathigumpha inscription of Kharvela
c) Besnagar inscription of Helidorus
d) Junagadh inscription of Rudradaman I
e) Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta
f) Aihole inscription of Pulakesin II
g) Ikshvaku inscription of Virapurushadatta
h) Nasik cave inscription of Gautamiputra Satakarni
i) Banskhera inscription of Harshavardhana
j) Mandagapattu inscription of Mahendravarman I
k) Uttiramerur inscription of Parantaka I
l) Brihadeswara temple inscription of Rajaraja Chola I
x) Paleography – North Indian Scripts: Early Brahmi; Sunga, Kushana and Kshatrapa inscriptions; Gupta and post-Gupta inscriptions; Sarada; Gaudiya; Box-headed and
Nail-headed characters; Siddhamatrika; Evolution of Nagari scripts.
xi) Palaeography – South Indian scripts: Tamil-Brahmi; Satavahana, Ikshvaku and Kadamba inscriptions; Origin and development of Telugu-Kannada script; Pallava-Grantha;; Grantha; Tamil script; Vatteluttu.
xii) Developmental stages of the following Brahmi letters: a, ka, cha, na, pa, bha, ma, ya, sha, sa, ha.
xiii) Use of diacritical marks
xiv) Arabic and Persian Inscriptions: broad characteristics of the main varieties of Arabic and Persian inscriptions found in Indo-Islamic calligraphy.
xv) Arabic and Persian calligraphy with special reference to Kufic, Nask, Thulth, Nastaliq, Tughra, Shikasta, Makus.
xvi) Arabic numerals, chronograms and eras.
xvii) Use of diacritical marks.
i) Numismatics as a source of history
ii) Origin and antiquity of coinage in India
iii) Coins from excavations and their significance
iv) Metal content of coins, weight and shape
v) Authority of issuing coins – Janapadas, Cities, Guilds, Ganas and Dynasties
vi) Technique of minting coins: Punch-marked, cast, die-struck and mints in the medieval period.
vii) Broad characteristics and identification of dynastic coins: Punch-marked, cast copper coins, Indo-Greek, Saka, Satavahana, Kushan, Gupta, Huna, Indo-Sassanian (Gadhaiya), and Rajput.
viii) Broad characteristics and identification of coins of Chola, Delhi Sultanate, Vijayanagara, Mughal, Kashmir and Ahom.
Module 9 35 Hrs
i) Introduction to Museology
a) Definition of museology and museography
b) History of development of museums in the world with special reference to India
c) Types of museums, their scope and functions
ii) Collection, Documentation and Preservation
a) Collection policies, ethics and procedures
b) Collection: field exploration, excavation, purchase, gift and bequests, loans and deposits, exchanges, treasure trove, confiscation and others
c) Documentation: accessioning, indexing, cataloguing, digital documentation and de- accessioning
d) Preservation: curatorial care, preventive conservation, chemical preservation and restoration
iii) Museum Presentation/ Exhibition
a) Types of exhibits and exhibitions, exhibition designing, planning, fabrication, installation and related issues
b) Principles of display for permanent exhibition and reserve collection
c) Objectives and communication goals, target audience, concept development, story line, designing and layout of exhibits, gallery development, space, showcases and structural installation, colour scheme, lighting, labels & scripts, evaluation
d) Temporary, travelling, mobile and exhibitions abroad
iv) Museum Education and Communication
a) In house educational programmes and activities, outreach programmes
b) Educational activities like lectures, seminars, workshops, museum camps, special celebrations
c) Use of multimedia in museums
v) Museum Research and Publications
a) Research based on museum collections, research publications, catalogue
b) Popular publications such as guide books, brochures, worksheets, pamphlets, posters, picture postcards
c) Museological research, visitor surveys and exhibit evaluation studies
vi) Museum Management
a) Museum Management and administration: security, public safety, insurance, budgeting and human resources
b) Museum architecture, adaptation and use of old buildings
c) Forgeries, copies, replicas, reproductions
d) Museum Marketing
e) ICOM code of professional ethics and statutes
f) National and international organizations related to museums
g) Relevant laws on antiquities and art treasures
h) Guidelines for loans
vii) Practical work: students shall undertake practical work and assignments related to the topics of study.
Module 10 40 Hrs
STRUCTURAL CONSERVATION OF MONUMENTS
i) History and Principles of Conservation
a) History of archaeological conservations
b) General principles and guidelines for conservation and preservation of monuments/ sites & excavated remains in India and historic gardens
c) Guiding principles of conservation/ preservation of monuments as per international conventions
d) Role of Archaeological Survey of India in the preservation of monuments in India and abroad
e) Salvaging and transplantation of monuments
f) Reconstruction and restoration of monuments
g) Projects execution of conservation of important monuments
h) Preservation and environmental development
i) Importance of knowledge of archaeology, civil engineering, art and architecture for conservation of monuments
j) Exposure to indigenous practices/ techniques and treaties (eg. manasara, agamas, etc)
k) Distribution of monuments in different geographical/ seismic zones and their conservation problem
ii) Materials and Techniques
a) Stone: classification, quarries, selection, specifications, defects, types of masonry, techniques of jointing and pointing
b) Bricks: types, kilns, material composition, techniques of manufacturing, characteristics, specifications, bonding and laying, coloured tiles and ceramics
c) Wood: structure of timber, seasoning, defects and treatment, use in buildings, causes of decay and remedies
d) Metals and alloys: definition of terms, iron ores, manufacture of iron, different types or iron steel and their use in building, protection f metals against corrosion
e) Non-ferrous metals: copper, lead zinc, tin and gun metal
f) Concrete: Lime and cement concrete, their composition and use in building, reinforced cement concrete, water proofing, deterioration of concrete and repairs, surface treatment with concrete, shot concrete (guniting)
g) Mortar: definition of mortar, types of ancient mortar and concrete, lime mortar, its composition and specifications, cement mortar, mud mortar, special mortar for inlay and marble work, synthetic mortar, resins and their uses as adhesives and consolidants.
Types of scaffolding, temporary supports, propping and strutting, centering, shoring, timbering of deep trenches, providing of chutes, safety measures.
a) Definition of foundation and footing
b) Foundation in ancient buildings
c) Types of foundation
d) Typical failure of foundation
e) Consolidating and strengthening of foundations
f) Water proofing
v) Inspection of Monuments
a) The purpose of periodical inspection
b) Studying the problems of conservation and preservation and drawing of conservation notes
c) Study of crack patterns
d) General assessment, such as administrative problems and security measures
vi) Constructional Members (Pillars, Beams, Arches, Domes and Vaults)
a) Grouting by pressure and gravity
b) Pointing, types of pointing
d) Rock bolting, filleting and edging
e) Inlay work
f) Stucco work
g) Tile work
h) Glass work/ mirror wok/ stained glass work
i) Monitoring of cracks (tell-tales and strain gauges)
j) Plastering (walls and ceilings), lathing, packing with lime concrete and surface treatment, water tightening the tops, purity of water
k) Conservation of excavated remains
l) Use of dowels
m) Rising damp/ penetrating damp/ water drainage
vii) Estimating and costing
a) Special repairs estimate
b) Annual repairs estimate
c) Original works estimate
d) Supplementary and revised estimates
e) Schedule of rates and analysis of rates
f) Engineering appreciations
g) Conservation policy and planning
h) Administrative problems and logistics
Module 11 30 Hrs
CHEMICAL PRESERVATION OF MONUMENTS AND ANTIQUITIES
Ethics of conservation, restoration and preservation and its history
ii) Basic Chemistry
a) Inorganic and organic chemistry
b) Elements and compounds
c) Metals (Silver, Gold, Copper, Iron, Lead) and non-metals
e) Acids, bases and salts
f) pH, ionic and non-ionic solutions
g) Solubility, solvents and insolubility
iii) Causes of Decay
a) Physical, chemical and biological deteriorating agencies
b) Air-pollution – monitoring and control
c) Environmental parameters – monitoring
d) Preventive and curative methods of control
a) Preparation of history chart, status report
b) Photography, Ultraviolet, Infrared and Radiography
c) Fakes and forgeries with case studies
v) Metallic Antiquities (Gold, Silver, Copper, Bronze, Lead, Iron)
a) Ores, source of origin and metallurgy
b) Causes of decay and corrosion
c) Consolidation and treatment in the field
d) Laboratory treatment, preservation and general maintenance
vi) Organic Antiquities (Ivory, Bone, Horn, Leather, Parchment, Furs, Paper, Birch Bark, Palm Leaf, Wood and Textile)
a) Material and its composition
b) Causes of decay
c) Treatment in field and laboratory
d) Fumigation, bleeding, strengthening, drying and lamination
e) Consolidation, repairs and general maintenance
vii) Siliceous, Calcareous and Argillaceous antiquities (Stone, Semi-precious Stone, Mineral, Mud, Terracotta, Pottery, Glass, Glaze, Faience, Stucco)
a) Chemical composition
b) Causes of decay
c) Treatment in field and laboratory
d) Consolidation and repair
a) Building materials – problems of stones, bricks, mortars and lime
b) Causes of decay
c) Cleaning, consolidation and preservation
d) Techniques – chemical wash, sand blast, paper pulp, clay pack, mist and jelly techniques
a) Factors – material structure and pigments
b) Causes of decay
d) Consolidation, restoration, repair and general maintenance
1. Mural Paintings: Types – fresco, secco and tempera; Composition of ground support, etc; Factors – Ground, binding, medium and pigment; Transplantation (mounting, packing and transportation)
2. Oil paintings: Historical background, origin in Europe and India; Factors – carrier, ground, pigment and varnish; Mechanical disintegration of canvas and paint layers
3. Miniature paper paintings and manuscripts: Factors – paper, paints, pigments, dyes, medium; Determination of pH of paper, its folding endurance, tensile strength, percentage of cellulose
4. Paintings on cloth, glass, wood, ivory and leather: Factors – material, pigment, dyes
x) Case Study of Monuments and Antiquarian Remains
xi) Authentication of antiquities by Scientific aids
xii) Establishment of Field Laboratory (Necessary Instruments, Tools, Equipments and
a) Treatment and cleaning of metal antiquities
b) Treatment, cleaning and strengthening of mural paintings
c) Treatment of canvas and miniature paintings
d) Cleaning and treatment of stones, marble, plaster, etc
e) Laboratory procedures and determination of pH, etc
Module 12 40 Hrs
a) History of antiquarian laws in India
b) Problems and implementation
ii) Important Legislations:
a) The Indian Treasure Trove Act, 1878
b) The Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, 1904
c) The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958
d) The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Rules, 1959
e) The Antiquities and Art Treasures Act, 1972
f) The Antiquities and Art Treasures rules, 1973
iii) Related Act and Rules
a) Land Acquisition Act 1894
b) Public Premises (Eviction of unauthorised occupants) Act, 1971
c) Public Premises (Eviction of unauthorised occupants) Rules
iv) International Conventions
a) The Athens Charter for the Restoration of Historic Monuments, 1931
b) UNESCO Convention for the protection of cultural property in the event of war and conflict (Hague), 1954
c) The Venice Charter, 1964
d) Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property, 1970
e) Convention concerning the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, 1972
f) UNESCO Recommendation for the protection of movable cultural property, 1978
g) The Burra Charter, 1979
h) Historic Gardens – The Florence Charter, 1981
i) Charter for the Protection and Management of the Archaeological Heritage, 1990
j) Guidelines on Education and Training in the Conservation of Monuments, Ensembles and Sites, 1993
k) Nara document on Authenticity, 1994
l) Charter on the Protection and Management of Underwater Cultural Heritage, 1996
m) Principles for the Recording of Monuments, Groups of Buildings and Sites, 1996
n) International Cultural Tourism Charter, 1999
o) Charter on Built Vernacular Heritage, 1999
p) Principles for the Preservation and Conservation/ Restoration of Wall Paintings, 2003
q) Principles for the Analysis, Conservation and Structural Restoration of Architectural Heritage, 2003
v) Practical Test:
Surveying, Drawing, Photography, Modelling, Exploration & Excavation, Chemical Conservation, Computer Application, Viva-voce, General observations, Tutorials and Museum display, Dissertation.
d. Conservation- approach, attitude, professional ethics and scope of entrepreneurship, consciousness towards authenticity
Concept of Cultural Property
Eligibility: MA in Archaeology/Ancient history/, M.Sc in Chemistry/Anthropology/ Geology, BE in Civil/ Architecture.
SYLLABUS DETAILS 120 Hrs
Module 1 20 Hrs
Laws/ Principles/ Guidelines
1. Conservation approach attitude, professional ethics and scope
2. Theories, modern principle & guidelines
Module 2 35 Hrs
1. Indian Treasure Trove Act, 1878
2. Land acquisition Act, 1894
3. The Ancient monuments and Archaeological sites and remains Act, 1904
4. Ancient monuments and archaeological sites and remains Act, 1958 and rules, 1959. The Antiquities and Art Treasures Act, 1972. Export Protection Act, 1986
5. Social responsibility of Management/ Organisations
Module 3 40 Hrs
Survey, Inspection, assessing Deterioration and Preparation of status reports
1. Factors effecting the monuments/ buildings/ coin/ paintings and other antique
2. Recordings/ photography and preparation of drawings
3. Preparation of assessment report
4. Budgeting/ Financial management
5. Preservation of Paintings/ Manuscripts/ Organic/ Inorganic materials. Paper, Birch bark, Palm leaves/ textile, bone, ivory etc. Metals – copper, bronze, brass, Iron, Lead, Gold, Silver, Alloys, Stone clay etc.
Module 4 25 Hrs
1. Definition of Antiquity
2. Registration of Antiquity
3. Who can hold an Antiquity?
4. Transfer of ownership and is necessary to be intimated to the Registering Officer
5. Antiquity license
6. Condition for license
7. Validity of license and renewal
8. Benefits of registration
9. Exporting an antiquity is legal?
10. Antiquity and Art Treasure Act
11. Government role in Protection and Registration of Antiquities
12. Registration of Antiquities
13. Appointment of registering officers
14. Application for registration and grant of certificate of registration
15. Transfer of ownership, etc., of antiquities to be intimated to the registering officer
Course duration: 3 months
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